We felt annotating Ghanada stories will help the readers understand many words, places and events spread out in all the Ghanada stories.

Here are a few Annotations of Ghanada Stories in English

The Raft (Bhela)

1 Jangada (sounds more like Shangada in English) is a traditional fishing boat made of light-weight wood used in the northern region of Brazil. The construction of the jangada incorporates some improvements in neolithic handcraft – better materials were found and the physics of sailing was better observed through experimentation. The details are closely guarded by artisans. Page 396

2 Porpoises are a group of fully aquatic marine mammals, similar in appearance to a dolphin, all of which are classified under the family Phocoenidae, parvorder Odontoceti (toothed whales). There are seven extant species of porpoise. They are small toothed whales that are very closely related to oceanic dolphins. The most obvious visible difference between the two groups is that porpoises have shorter beaks and flattened spade-shaped teeth distinct from the conical teeth of dolphins. Page 398

3 Cabedelo is a municipality in the state of Paraíba in the Northeast Region of Brazil. It is the most western point of Baril. The municipality contains the 250 acres Restinga de Cabedelo National Forest, created in 2004. Page 398

4 Ceará (sounds like ([seaˈɾa] (listen) is one of the 27 states of Brazil, located in the northeastern part of the country, on the Atlantic coast. It is the eighth-largest Brazilian State by population and the 17th by area. It is also one of the main tourist destinations in Brazil. The state capital is the city of Fortaleza, the country’s fourth most populous city. The state is best known for its extensive coastline, with 600 km (370 mi) of sand. There are also mountains and valleys. Page 398

Brother (Dada)

1 Tenzing Norgay (29 May 1914 – 9 May 1986), born as Namgyal Wangdi and often referred to as Sherpa Tenzing, was a Nepali-Indian Sherpa mountaineer He was one of the first two individuals known to reach the summit of Mount Everest, which he accomplished with Sir Edmund Hillary on 29 May 1953. Sir Edmund Hillary (20 July 1919 – 11 January 2008) was a New Zealand mountaineer, explorer, and philanthropist. Page 117

2 Second World War was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world’s countries – including all the great powers – eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Page 120

3 Kiser Wilhelm Strasse (originally Karl-Liebknecht-Straße) is a name of a street that was built in 1887 in honour of the emperor. During the Nazi era, demolition of the street Kaiser Wilhelm Brücke began in March 1939 to make room for the Welthauptstadt Germania plans developed by Albert Speer; nevertheless, works ceased shortly after the outbreak of World War II in September. Most of the buildings on Kaiser Wilhelm Straße were largely damaged and several lost completely in the British and American air raids on the city between 1943 and 1945. Page 120

4 Allies of World War II were made of the chief Allied powers like Great Britain, France (except during the German occupation, 1940 – 44), the Soviet Union (after its entry in June 1941), the United States (after its entry on December 8, 1941), and China. More generally, the Allies included all the wartime members of the United Nations, the signatories to the Declaration of the United Nations. Page 122

5 Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II. Codenamed Operation Neptune and often referred to as D-Day, it was the largest seaborne invasion in history. The operation began the liberation of German occupied France (and later Western Europe) from Nazi control. Page 122

6 Baffin Island (in the Canadian territory of Nunavut) is the largest island in Canada and the fifth largest island in the world. Its area is about 500,000 sq. km and its population is 13,148 (2016 census). It is located about 300 miles west of the southern tip of Greenland and 200 miles north of northern tip of Newfoundland. Page 123

7 Frobisher Bay (Iqaluit) means “place of fish”. It is the capital of the Canadian territory of Nunavut, its largest community, and its only city. Page 123

Teeth (Dant)

1 Avalon is situated on the easterly portion of Catalina Island, 22 miles off the coast of Southern California. Avalon is a little over 2 .8 square miles in size. Page 137

2 Santa Catalina Island is a rocky island off the coast of the U.S. state of California in the Gulf of Santa Catalina. The island name is often shortened to Catalina Island or just Catalina. The island is 22 mi (35 km) long and 8 mi (13 km) across at its greatest width. The island is located about 29 mi (47 km) south-southwest of Long Beach, California. Page 140

3 Newport a small coastal city in Mendocino County, Southern California is known for its large, boat-filled harbor. Page 141

3 Cobalt bomb is a type of nuclear weapon designed to produce enhanced amounts of radioactive fallout, intended to contaminate a large area with radioactive material. The concept of a cobalt bomb was originally described in a radio program by physicist Leó Szilárd on February 26, 1950. His intent was not to propose such a weapon to be built, but to show that nuclear weapon technology would soon reach the point where it could end human life on Earth, a doomsday device. Page 146.

Rock (Dhil)

1 Dwight David “Ike” Eisenhower (Oct. 14, 1890 – Mar. 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th president of the United States from 1953 to 1961. Page 191

2 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 Apr. 1894 – 11 Sep. 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party from 1953 to 1964. Page 191

3 Kifaru means “rhinoceros” in Swahili language. Rhinoceros are killed by some humans for their horns, which are bought and sold on the black market, and used by some cultures for ornaments or traditional medicine. East Asia, specifically Vietnam, is the largest market for rhino horns. By weight, rhino horns cost as much as gold on the black market. Page 192

4 Panga is a variant of cutting tool used in East and Southern Africa. This name may be of Swahili etymology not to be confused with the Panga fish. The panga blade broadens on the backside and has a length of 16 to 18 inches (41 to 46 cm). Page 192

5 Tektites are gravel-sized bodies composed of black, green, brown, or gray natural glass formed from terrestrial debris ejected during meteorite impacts. The term was coined by Austrian geologist Franz Eduard Suess (1867–1941). They generally range in size from millimeters to centimeters. Page 194

6 Radioisotopes (Radionuclides) are the unstable form of an element that emits radiation to transform into a more stable form. When an atom has excess nuclear energy it becomes unstable. The excess energy can be used in one of three ways: emitted from the nucleus as gamma radiation; transferred to one of its electrons to release it as a conversion electron; or used to create and emit a new particle (alpha particle or beta particle) from the nucleus. These special attributes make radioisotopes useful in medicine, industry and other areas. Page 194

7 Bodrum is a district and a port city in the southwestern Region of Turkey. It is located on the southern coast of Bodrum Peninsula. The modern name Bodrum derives from the town’s medieval name Petronium. Page 194

8 Halicarnassus was an ancient Greek city at what is now Bodrum in Turkey. It was located in southwest Caria on the Ceramic Gulf. The city was famous for the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, built from 353 to 350 BC, ranked as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Page 194

9 Herodotus (c. 484 – c. 425 BC) was an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum,Turkey). He is often referred to as “The Father of History”. Page 194

10 Spongia officinalis, better known as bath sponge, is a commercially used sea sponge. Individuals grow in large lobes with small openings and are formed by a mesh of primary and secondary fibers. It is light grey to black in color. It is found throughout the Mediterranean Sea up to 100 meters deep on rocky or sandy surfaces. Page 196

11 Marmaris is a port city and tourist resort on the Mediterranean coast, located in Muğla Province, southwest Turkey, Marmaris’ main source of income is tourism. In 2010, the city’s population was 30,957, and peaks at around 300,000 to 400,000 people during the tourist season. Page 196

12 Aqua-Lung was the first open-circuit, self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (or “SCUBA”) to reach worldwide popularity and commercial success. Page 196

13 Alabaster is a mineral or rock that is soft, usually light colored, translucent, often used for carving, and is processed for plaster powder. Archaeologists and the stone processing industry use the word differently from geologists. The former use is in a wider sense that includes varieties of two different minerals: the fine-grained massive type of gypsum and the fine-grained banded type of calcite. Chemically, gypsum is a hydrous sulfate of calcium, while calcite is a carbonate of calcium. Page 200.

Dust (Dhulo)

1 Hurricane Audrey was one of the deadliest tropical cyclones in U.S. history, killing at least 416 people in its devastation of the southwestern Louisiana coast in 1957. Along with Hurricane Alex in 2010, it was also the strongest June hurricane ever recorded in the Atlantic basin as measured by pressure. Audrey was the first named storm and hurricane of the 1957 hurricane season. Page 30

2 Lesser Antilles is an archipelago bordered by the Caribbean Sea to the south and west, the Gulf of Mexico to the northwest, and the Atlantic Ocean to the north and east. The Antillean islands are divided into two smaller groupings: the Greater Antilles and the Lesser Antilles. The Lesser Antilles contains the northerly Leeward Islands and the southeasterly Windward Islands. Page 30

3 Mayaguana is the easternmost island and district of the Bahamas. Its population was 277 in the 2010 census. It has an area of about 280 km2 (110 sq mi). It also was one of the first islands that Christopher Columbus landed on during his journey to the new world. Page 31

4 Strombudhuls gigas, commonly known as the queen conch, is a species of large edible sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family of true conches, the Strombidae. This species is one of the largest mollusks native to the Caribbean Sea, and tropical northwestern Atlantic, from Bermuda to Brazil, reaching up to 35.2 cm (13.9 in) in shell length. Page 31

5 Sloop is a sailboat with a single mast typically meaning one headsail in front of the mast, and one mainsail aft of (behind) the mast. Page 32

6 New Providence is the most populous island in The Bahamas, containing more than 70% of the total population It is the location of the national capital city of Nassau, whose boundaries are coincident with the island; it had a population of 246,329 at the 2010 Census; the latest estimate (2016) is 274,400. The island was originally under Spanish control following Christopher Columbus’s discovery of the New World. Page 32

7 Hurricane Hazel was the deadliest, costliest, and most intense hurricane of the 1954 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm killed at least 469 people in Haiti before striking the United States near the border between North and South Carolina as a Category 4 hurricane. As a result of the high death toll and the damage caused by Hazel, its name was retired from use for North Atlantic hurricanes. Page 33

8 Eye is a region of mostly calm weather at the center of strong tropical cyclones. The eye of a storm is a roughly circular area, typically 30 – 65 km (19 – 40 miles) in diameter. It is surrounded by the eye wall, a ring of towering thunderstorms where the most severe weather and highest winds occur. The cyclone’s lowest barometric pressure occurs in the eye and can be as much as 15 percent lower than the pressure outside the storm. Page 33

9 Silver iodide is an inorganic compound with the formula AgI. The compound is a bright yellow solid, but samples almost always contain impurities of metallic silver that give a gray coloration. The silver contamination arises because AgI is highly photosensitive. This property is exploited in silver-based photography. Silver iodide is also used as an antiseptic and in cloud seeding. Page 33

Song (Gaan)

1 Tonga officially named the Kingdom of Tonga is a Polynesian sovereign state and archipelago comprising 169 islands, of which 36 are inhabited. The total surface area is about 750 square km (290 sq mi) scattered over 700,000 square km (270,000 sq mi) of the southern Pacific Ocean. Page 124

2 Limu is an island in Tonga. It is located within the Ha’apai Group in the centre of the country, to northeast of the national capital of Nukuʻalofa. Page 124

3 Hokkaido is the second-largest island of Japan, and the largest and northernmost prefecture. The Tsugaru Strait separates Hokkaido from Honshu. It was formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso. The two islands are connected by the undersea railway Seikan Tunnel. The largest city on Hokkaido is its capital Sapporo, which is also its only ordinance-designated city. Page 124

4 Stem christie or “wedge christie” is a technique used in skiing for turning. The turn comprises three steps: 1. Forming a wedge by rotating the tail of one ski outwards at an angle to the direction of movement, which initiates a change in the direction opposite to the stemmed ski. 2. Bringing the other ski parallel to the wedged ski. 3. Completing the turn with both skis parallel as they carve an arcing turn sliding sideways together. Page 124

5 Telemark skiing is a ski turning technique and FIS-sanctioned discipline, which is named after the Telemark region of Norway. It uses equipment similar to Nordic skiing, where the ski bindings are attached only at the toes of the ski boots, allowing the skier’s heel to be raised throughout the turn. However, the skis themselves are often the same width as Alpine skis. Page 124

6 Ueno Station is a major railway station in Tokyo’s Taitō ward. It is the station used to reach the Ueno district and Ueno Park – which contains Tokyo National Museum, The National Museum of Western Art, Ueno Zoo, Tokyo University of the Arts and other famous cultural facilities. Page 126

7 Bufo marinus (the bufo toad, also known as marine toad, giant toad, cane toad) is a brown to grayish-brown toad with black or white spots. Adult toads generally range in size from 6 to 9 inches, but may get larger. When confronted by a predator, the toad is able to secrete a toxin from the glands on the back of the head (called the parotid glands) in the form of whitish liquid. The secretions are highly toxic to dogs, cats, and other animals, and can cause skin irritation in humans. Page 128

Chaotic Halley (Halley-r Bechaal)

1 Halley’s Comet, officially designated 1P/Halley, and is a short-period comet visible from Earth every 75 – 76 years. Halley is the only known short-period comet that is regularly visible to the naked eye from Earth, and the only naked-eye comet that might appear twice in a human lifetime. Halley last appeared in the inner parts of the Solar System in 1986 and will next appear in mid-2061 to 2062. Page 413

2 Giotto was a European robotic spacecraft mission from the European Space Agency. The spacecraft flew by and studied Halley’s Comet and in doing so became the first spacecraft to make close-up observations of a comet. The mission was given the go-ahead by ESA in 1980 and launched on an Ariane 1 rocket (flight V14) on 2 July 1985 from Kourou, French Guiana. Images showed Halley’s nucleus to be a dark peanut-shaped body, 15 km long, 7 km to 10 km wide. Page 414

3 Proxima Centauri is a small, low-mass star located 4.244 light-years (1.301 pc) away from the Sun in the southern constellation of Centaurus. Proxima Centauri is a red dwarf star with a mass about an eighth of the Sun’s mass (M☉), and average density about 33 times that of the Sun. Because of Proxima Centauri’s proximity to Earth, its angular diameter can be measured directly. Its actual diameter is about one-seventh the diameter of the Sun. Page 420

Water (Jal)

1 Kīlauea is an active shield volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, and the most active of the five volcanoes that together form the island of Hawaiʻi. Kīlauea Iki is a pit crater that is next to the main summit caldera of Kīlauea on the island of Hawaiʻi in the Hawaiian Islands. Some of the most impressive parts of the eruption were the lava fountains. Page 332

2 Kambaramba Village, East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea, is built entirely on stilts over an oxbow segment of the Sepik near Angoram. Page 332

3 Puk Puk, is a small species of crocodile found on the island of New Guinea. Page 332

4 Bechuanaland was a short-lived Crown colony of the United Kingdom that existed in Southern Africa from its formation on 1 Sep 1885 until its annexation to the neighbouring Cape Colony on 16 Nov 1895. British Bechuanaland had an area of 51,424 square miles (133,190 km2) and a population of 84,210. Today the region forms part of South Africa. Page 332

5 Johannesburg is the largest city in South Africa and one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world. Stone-walled ruins of towns and villages are scattered around the parts of the former Transvaal in which Johannesburg is situated. Page 333

6 Kalahari Desert is a large semi-arid sandy savanna in Southern Africa extending for 900,000 square km (350,000 sq mi), covering much of Botswana, parts of Namibia and regions of South Africa. Page 335

7 Kuruman is a town with just over 13,000 inhabitants in the Northern Cape province of South Africa. The Kuruman River, which is dry except for flash floods after heavy rain, is named after the town. Kuruman is regarded as the “Oasis of the Kalahari”. Page 338

8 Karakul sheep breed has a lot to offer to livestock production in many parts of Botswana. This breed of sheep is acclimatized to desert conditions, which produces a range of products viz meat, milk, fur/pelt and wool. Page 341

9 Tsamma melon (Citrullus caffer) is a relative of the watermelon, It is in the family which consists of various squashes, melons, and gourds. Its fruit has a hard white flesh, rendering it less likely to be eaten raw. Page 343

Mud (Kada)

1 Ranch is an area of land, including various structures, given primarily to the practice of ranching, the practice of raising grazing livestock such as cattle and sheep most often applies to livestock-raising operations in Mexico, the Western United States and Western Canada, though there are ranches in other areas. People who own or operate a ranch are called ranchers, cattlemen, or stock growers. Page 86

2 Mato Grosso is one of the states of Brazil, the third-largest by area, located in the western part of the country. Neighboring states (from west clockwise) are: Rondônia, Amazonas, Pará, Tocantins, Goiás and Mato Grosso do Sul. Page 86

3 Araguaia River is one of the major rivers of Brazil though it is almost equal in volume at its confluence with the Tocantins. It has a total length of approximately 2,627 km. The Araguaia River comes from Goiás-Mato Grosso south borders. From there it flows northeast to a junction with the Tocantins near the town of São João. Page 86

4 Belém is a Brazilian city with 2,491,052 people residing in its Metropolitan Region. The capital city itself has 1,485,732 inhabitants. It is the capital and largest city of the state of Pará in the country’s north. It is the gateway to the Amazon River with a busy port, airport, and bus/coach station. Page 86

5 Brasília is the federal capital of Brazil and the seat of government of the Federal District. The city is located atop the Brazilian highlands in the country’s center -western region. Page 90

6 Cynolebias Bellottii or the “Pearl Fish” is unique in that it lives its life from birth out of a dry pond bed, flooded by spring rains, grows quickly to maturity, mates, deposits its eggs for the next generation and dies as the pond dries up in the dry season. They appear to have a unique rapid time clock that causes them to grow to full maturity in as little as 3 months and be ready to reproduce since, in some areas where they are native to, the wet season may only be a little over 4 months. Page 90

Thorns (Knata)

1 Crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, is a large starfish that preys upon hard, or stony, coral polyps (Scleractinia). The crown-of-thorns starfish receives its name from venomous thorn-like spines that cover its upper surface, resembling the biblical crown of thorns. It is one of the largest starfish in the world. It is perhaps most common in Australia, but can occur at tropical and subtropical latitudes from the Red Sea and the east African coast across the Indian Ocean, and across the Pacific Ocean to the west coast of Central America. Page 103

2 Caroline Islands (or the Carolines) are a widely scattered archipelago of tiny islands in the western Pacific Ocean, to the north of New Guinea. Politically they are divided between the Federated States of Micronesia in the eastern part of the group, and Palau at the extreme western end. Page 103

3 Ifalik is a coral atoll of four islands in the central Caroline Islands in the Pacific Ocean, and forms a legislative district in Yap State in the Federated States of Micronesia. Ifalik is located approximately 40 km (25 mi) east of Woleai and 700 km (430 mi) southeast of the island of Yap. The population of Ifalik was 561 in 2000 living on 1.5 km2. The primary islets of Ifalik are called Ella, Elangelap, Rawaii, and Falalop, which is the atoll’s main island. Page 103

4 Schooner is a type of sailing vessel defined by its rig: fore-and-aft rigged on all of 2 or more masts and, in the case of a 2 masted schooner, the foremast generally being shorter than the mainmast. A common variant, the topsail schooner also has a square topsail on the foremast, to which may be added top gallant and other square sails. Page 109

5 Guam is an organized, unincorporated territory of the United States in Micronesia in the western Pacific Ocean. It is the westernmost point and territory of the United States, along with the Northern Mariana Islands. The capital city of Guam is Hagåtña and the most populous city is Dededo. Page 111

6 Apra Harbor, also called Port Apra, is a deep-water port on the western side of the United States territory of Guam. The harbor is formed by Orote Peninsula in the south and Cabras Island in the north. To the south, the harbor narrows and then widens again to form an inner harbor. The southern end of the harbor is the location of Naval Base Guam. Page 111

7 Charonia tritonis, common name the Triton’s trumpet or the giant triton, is a species of very large sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Charoniidae, the tritons. Reaching up to two feet (or 60 cm) in shell length this is one of the biggest mollusks in the coral reef. Page 113

The Spinning Top (Lattu)

1 Dakota is a military transport aircraft developed from the civilian Douglas DC-3 airliner manufactured by Douglas Aircraft Company. It was used extensively by the Allies during World War II and remains in front-line service with various military operators. Page 101

2 Nova Scotia means “New Scotland” in Latin is Canada’s smallest province, surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, at the northeast of the mainland with an area of 55,284 square km. Page 101

3 Liverpool Regional Airport is a registered aerodrome located in Greenfield, northwest of Liverpool, in Nova Scotia, Canada. Page 101

4 Halifax Municipal Airport was the city’s first aerodrome built in 1931 and was located in the west end of the city. The airport operated until 1941. Page 101

5 Croydon Airport was the UK’s major and only international airport during the interwar period. Located in Croydon, South London, England, it opened in 1920 and was developed as Britain’s main airport, handling more cargo, mail, and passengers than any other UK airport at the time. Page 101

6 Port Moresby is the capital and largest city of Papua New Guinea and the largest city in the South Pacific outside of Australia and New Zealand. Page 101

7 Labrador is a geographic and cultural region within the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The highest numbers of fur farms are located in: Nova Scotia, Ontario, Newfoundland and Labrador. Page 106

8 Mink are dark-colored carnivorous mammals. The American mink’s fur has been highly prized for use in clothing. Page 106

9 Sable is a small carnivorous mammal primarily inhabiting the forest environments of Russia. Historically, it has been hunted for its highly valued dark brown or black fur. Page 106

10 Battle Harbour is a summer fishing station, located on the northern part of Labrador coast in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Page 108

11 Hamilton River is located in the Grand Falls area of Labrador. Page 108

12 Dike Island is a large northeast trending island in southeastern Nova Scotia, Canada. It is 140 km (87 mi) long, Page 108

13 Hamilton Waterfalls in Canada is home to more than 100 waterfalls, and with one of the highest number of waterfalls of any urban area of its size, has been called the Waterfall Capital of the World. Page 108

14 Algonquian are one of the most populous and widespread North American native language groups. Historically, the peoples were prominent along the Atlantic Coast and into the interior along the Saint Lawrence River and around the Great Lakes. Page 109

The Fly (Machhi)

1 Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr (May 624 – October/November 692) was the leader of a caliphate based in Mecca. Through the prestige of his family ties and social links with the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his strong association with the holy city of Mecca, Ibn al-Zubayr was able to lead the influential, disaffected Muslim factions. Page 308

2 Granada is a city in southern Spain’s Andalusia region, in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Page 309

3 Mandara Mountains are a volcanic range extending about 190 km (about 120 miles) along the northern part of the Cameroon-Nigeria border. Page 310

4 Douala is the largest city in Cameroon and its economic capital. Home to Central Africa’s largest port and its major international airport, it is the commercial and economic capital of Cameroon. Page 311

5 Bight of Biafra or Bay of Benin is a bight off the West African coast, in the easternmost part of the Gulf of Guinea. A 1710 map indicates that the region known as “Biafra” was located in present-day Cameroon. Page 314

6 Yaoundé is the capital of Cameroon and, with a population of more than 2.8 million, the second-largest city in the country after the port city Douala. Page 314

7 Rey Bouba is a city in North Region, Cameroon. Page 314

8 Fort-Lamy is a locality of Cameroon located in the district of Dargala. Page 314

9 Hausa are the largest ethnic group in Africa and the second largest language after Arabic. Page 314

10 Cephenemyia are large, gray-brown flies, often very accurate mimics of bumblebees. It was reported for many years that Cephenemyia was the fastest of all flying insects, cited by The New York Times and Guinness Book of World Records as traveling at speeds of over 800 miles per hour. In 1938 Irving Langmuir, recipient of the 1932 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, examined the claim in detail and refuted the estimate. Using the original report as a basis, Langmuir estimated its true speed at a more plausible 25 miles per hour. Page 322

Soil (Mati)

1 Bristol Perseus was a British nine-cylinder, single-row, air-cooled radial aircraft engine produced by the Bristol Engine Company starting in 1932. Page 438

2 North-East Frontier Agency (NEFA) was one of the political divisions in British India and later the Republic of India until 20 January 1972, when it became the Union Territory of Arunachal Pradesh. It received the status of State on 20 February 1987. Page 440

3 Kudus are two species of antelope of the genus Tragelaphus, it is part zebra part deer, namely Lesser kudu of eastern Africa and Greater kudu of eastern and southern Africa. Page 442

4 Kaduna is the state capital of Kaduna State in north-western Nigeria, on the Kaduna River. Page 442

5 Hausa are the largest ethnic group in Africa. Page 442

6 Yorùbá people are an African ethnic group that inhabits western Africa. Page 442

7 Fulani a primarily Muslim people scattered throughout many parts of West Africa. They are concentrated principally in Nigeria, Mali, Guinea, Cameroon, Senegal, and Niger. Page 442

8 Ibo also spelled Igbo people are an ethnic group native to the present-day south-central and south eastern Nigeria. Page 442

9 Biafra, officially the Republic of Biafra, was a state in West Africa which existed from 30 May 1967 to January 1970; it was made up of the states in the Southern Region of Nigeria. Biafra’s declaration of independence from Nigeria resulted in civil war between Biafra and Nigeria. Page 442

10 Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu was a Nigerian military officer and politician who served as the military governor of the Eastern Region of Nigeria in 1966 and the leader of the breakaway Republic of Biafra from 1967 to 1970. Page 443

11 Subansiri River is a tributary of the Brahmaputra River in the Indian states of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh. The Subansiri is 442 km (275 mi) long. Page 443

12 Daphla (or Dafla) Hills is a tract of hilly country on the border of western Arunachal and Assam occupied by an independent tribe called Daphla. Page 444

13 Apatani, also known by Apa and Apa Tani, are a tribal group of people living in the Ziro valley in the Lower Subansiri district of Arunachal Pradesh in India. Page 444

14 Benue River is the major tributary of the Niger River in Africa. The river is approximately 1,400 km long and is almost entirely navigable during the summer months. Page 444

15 Intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of 5,500 km (3,400 mi) primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads). Page 453

Radish (Mulo)

1 Queen Maud Mountains are a major group of mountains, ranges and subordinate features of the Transantarctic Mountains, lying between the Beardmore and Reedy Glaciers and including the area from the head of the Ross Ice Shelf to the Antarctic Plateau in Antarctica. Page 40

2 El Aziziya is a small town and it was the capital of the Jafara district in northwestern Libya, 41 km (25 mi) southwest of the capital Tripoli. On 13 September 1922, a high temperature of 58.0 °C (136.4 °F) was recorded in Al-ʿAzīzīyah. This was long considered the highest temperature ever measured on Earth, however, this record was deemed illegitimate in 2012 after an investigation by the WMO. Page 40

3 North Vostok is an outpost if ever there was one, Russia’s awe-inspiring Vostok Station is located near the South Geomagnetic Pole (one of four poles defined by geomagneticians). Built in 1957 on ice that is 3.7km thick, the station is named for one of Bellingshausen’s two ships, Vostok (East). It’s the site of the lowest temperature recorded on Earth: -89.2°C on July 21, 1983. Vostok’s record high temperature, set in 2002, is -12.3°C. Its first wintering crew gave Vostok its enduring nickname: ‘the Pole of Cold.’ Page 40

4 Oymyakon is a village (selo) in Oymyakonsky Ulus of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located along the 3 river Indighirka, 30 km northwest of Tømte the Kolyma Highway. On February 6, 1933, a temperature of -67.7 ° C was recorded there. This is the lowest temperature recorded for any permanently inhabited place on Earth. It is also the lowest temperature recorded in the Northern Hemisphere. Only Antarctica recorded lower official temperatures, the lowest being -89.2 ° C, near the Russian station Vostok . Page 42

5 Yakuts, or the Sakha are a Turkic ethnic group who mainly live in the Republic of Sakha in the Russian Federation. The Russian word yakut was taken from Evenk jeko. The Yakuts call themselves sakha or urangai sakha in some old chronicles. The Yakuts engage in animal husbandry, traditionally having focused on rearing horses, a hardy kind of cattle known as Yakutian cattle which is well-adapted to the harsh local weather. Page 44

6 Taiga is the world’s largest land biome (depending on how one defines a biome, it could also be considered the second-largest, after deserts and xeric shrub lands), covering 17 million square kilometers (6.6 million square miles) or 11.5% of the Earth’s land area. The largest areas are located in Russia and Canada. Page 44

The Dance (Naach)

1 Beni River is a river in the north of Bolivia. It rises north of La Paz and flows northeast. Two of Beni’s tributaries are the Madidi River and the Tuichi River in the Madidi National Park and Madidi National Park respectively. Page 70

2 Santa Cruz de la Sierra is commonly known as Santa Cruz, is the largest city in Bolivia and the capital of the Santa Cruz department. Situated on the Pirai River in the eastern Tropical Lowlands of Bolivia, the city of Santa Cruz and its metropolitan area is home to over 70% of the population of the department and it is one of the fastest-growing cities in the world. Page 70

3 Puerto Suárez is an inland river port and municipality in Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia. It is located 10 km west of the border with Brazil. The municipality is connected to the city of Santa Cruz in the west and Brazil in the east by major roads and rail-links as well as by an airport. Page 70

4 Madre de Dios River is a river shared by Bolivia and Peru which is homonymous to the Peruvian region it runs through. On Bolivian territory, it receives the Beni River, close to the town of Riberalta, which later joins with the Mamore River to become the Madeira River after the confluence. Page 75

5 Dance of honey bee (Waggle dance) is a term used in beekeeping and ethology for a particular figure-eight dance of the honey bee. By performing this dance, successful foragers can share information about the direction and distance to patches of flowers yielding nectar and pollen, to water sources, or to new nest-site locations with other members of the colony. Page 76

The Insect (Poka)

1 Latvia officially the Republic of Latvia is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Estonia to the north, Lithuania to the south, Russia to the east, and Belarus to the southeast. Page 32

2 Riga is the capital and largest city of Latvia. Being home to 632,614 inhabitants (2019), which is a third of Latvia’s population. Page 32

3 Droshky is an open four-wheeled horse-drawn carriage formerly used in Russia and Poland. Page 32

4 Astrakhan is the tightly curled fleece of the fetal or newborn karakul lamb. It has a distinctive tight, whorled, loopy surface with a slight sheen. A regular coat made of Astrakhan fur can cost $25,000. Page 32

5 Niger River is the principal river of West Africa, extending about 4,180 km (2,600 mi). ). Its source is in the Guinea Highlands in southeastern Guinea. It runs in a crescent through Mali, Niger, on the border with Benin and then through Nigeria. Page 32

6 Congo is a country located in Central Africa, the largest country in sub-Saharan Africa, the second-largest in all of Africa (after Algeria), and the 11th-largest in the world. Page 32

7 Maasai are a Nilotic ethnic group inhabiting northern, central and southern Kenya and northern Tanzania. They are among the best known local populations internationally due to their distinctive customs and dress. Page 32

8 Prussian are Inhabitants of Prussia, a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 on the southeast coast of the Baltic Sea. Page 32

9 Corsica is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France. It is located southeast of the French mainland and west of the Italian Peninsula. Page 38

10 Bahr al-Arab is a river which flows approximately 800 km (500 mi) through the southwest of Sudan and marks part of its international border with South Sudan. Page 38

11 Dinka people are an ethnic group native to South Sudan. They are believed to be the tallest people in Africa. They mostly live along the Nile, from Mangalla to Renk, in regions of Bahr el Ghazal, Upper Nile and Abyei. Page 38

The Threads (Suto)

1 Cusco often spelled Cuzco , is a city in southeastern Peru, in the Andes mountain range. It is the capital of the Cusco Region and of the Cusco Province. Page 176

2 Kinkajou is a tropical rainforest mammal of the family Procyonidae . Native to Central America and South America, it is seldom seen by people because of its strict nocturnal habits. Page 176

3 Mato Grosso is one of the states of Brazil, the third largest by area, located in the western part of the country. Mato Grosso contains the Amazon rainforest in its ecosystem. Page 176

4 Shavante (also Xavante ) are an indigenous people, within the territory of eastern Mato Grosso state in Brazil. They speak the Xavante language. Page 176

5 Ronuro River is a river of Mato Grosso state in western Brazil. Page 177

6 Guaribas or brown howler monkey lives in forests in southeastern Brazil. Page 177

7 Toucan is one of the most recognizable birds in Brazil with its distinct black plumage, white bib and large, multi-colored bill. Page 178

8 Brazilian tapir (in Portuguese anta), and is one of the four species in the tapir family. The South American tapir is the largest surviving native terrestrial mammal in the Amazon. Page 179

9 Capybara is a mammal native to South America. It is the largest living rodent in the world. Its close relatives include guinea pigs and rock cavies. Page 179

10 Francisco Pizarro Gonzalez was a Spanish conquistador who led the Spanish conquest of Peru. He captured and killed Incan emperor Atahualpa, and claimed the lands for Spain. Page 181

11 Cajamarca is the capital and largest city of the Cajamarca Region. It is located in the northern highlands of Peru. The history of the city is highlighted by the Battle of Cajamarca, which marked the defeat of the Inca Empire by Spanish invaders as the Incan emperor Atahualpa was captured and murdered here. Page 181

12 Quipu (also spelled khipu), or talking knots, are recording devices fashioned from strings historically used by a number of cultures in the region of Andean South America. The cords stored numeric and other values encoded as knots, often in a base ten positional system. A quipu could have only a few or thousands of cords. Page 182

13 Titicaca is a large, deep lake in the Andes on the border of Bolivia and Peru, often called the “highest navigable lake” in the world. Page 183

14 Dos de Mayo square is located in the city of Lima, capital of Peru, at the junction formed by the avenues. Page 185

Heavy Water (Tol)

1 Digha and Darjeeling are the two most visited tourists’ spots in West Bengal, India. Digha is a seaside resort town. It is located at the northern end of the Bay of Bengal. It has a low gradient with a shallow sand beach. It is the most popular sea resort in West Bengal. Darjeeling is located in the northern part of West Bengal. It is located in the Lesser Himalayas at an elevation of 2,000 meters (6,700 ft). It is noted for its tea industry, its views of Kangchenjunga, the world’s third-highest mountain. Page 50

2 Samoan Islands are an archipelago covering 3,030 sq km (1,170 sq mi) in the central South Pacific, forming part of Polynesia and the wider region of Oceania. In the late 1800s, the rivalry between the United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom resulted in the Tripartite Convention (1899) that formally partitioned the Samoan archipelago into a German colony (German Samoa) and a United States territory (American Samoa). Page 59

3 Darwin is the capital city of the Northern Territory of Australia, situated on the Timor Sea. It is the largest city in the sparsely populated Northern Territory, with a population of 148,564. It is the smallest, wettest, and most northerly of the Australian capital cities, and acts as the Top End’s regional center. Page 60

4 Alice Springs is the third-largest town in the Northern Territory of Australia. The town is situated roughly in Australia’s geographic center. It is nearly equidistant from Adelaide and Darwin. The surrounding region is known as Central Australia, or the Red Centre, an arid environment consisting of several different deserts. Temperatures in Alice Springs can vary, with an average maximum in summer of 35.6 °C (96.1 °F) and an average minimum in winter of 5.1 °C (41.2 °F). Page 60

5 Lima is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac, and Lurín rivers, in the central coastal part of the country, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Page 60

6 Galápagos Islands is part of the Republic of Ecuador, are an archipelago of volcanic islands distributed on either side of the equator in the Pacific Ocean surrounding the center of the Western Hemisphere, 906 km (563 mi) west of continental Ecuador. Page 60

7 Rarotonga is the most populous of the Cook Islands, with a population of 10,649 (as of 2016). The Cook Islands’ Parliament buildings and international airports are on Rarotonga. Rarotonga is a very popular tourist destination with many resorts, hotels, and motels. Page 60

8 MacDonnell Ranges is a mountain range and an interim Australian bioregion, located in the Northern Territory and has an area of 9,709,870 acres. The range is a 644 km (400 mi) long series of mountains in central Australia, consisting of parallel ridges running to the east and west of Alice Springs. Page 62

9 Heavy water (deuterium oxide, H2OD2O) is a form of water that contains a larger than normal amount of the hydrogen isotope deuterium (H or D, also known as heavy hydrogen), rather than the common hydrogen-1 isotope (H or H, also called protium) that makes up most of the hydrogen in normal water. The presence of deuterium gives the water different nuclear properties, and the increase of mass gives it slightly different physical and chemical properties when compared to normal water. Page 62

Ghanada Came (Ghanada Elen)

1 Jerboas form the bulk of the membership of the family Dipodidae. Jerboas are hopping desert rodents found throughout Arabia, Northern Africa and Asia. They tend to live in hot deserts. When chased, jerboas can run at up to 24 kilometers per hour (15 mph). Some species are preyed on by little owls (Athene noctua) in central Asia. Most species of jerboa have excellent hearing that they use to avoid becoming the prey of nocturnal predators. The typical lifespan of a jerboa is around six years. Page 403

Ghanada Returned (Ghanada Phirlen)

1 Magnetometer is a device that measures magnetism—the direction, strength, or relative change of a magnetic field at a particular location. The measurement of the magnetization of a magnetic material (like a ferromagnet) is an example. A compass is one such device, one that measures the direction of an ambient magnetic field, in this case, the Earth’s magnetic field. Page 362

Robinson Crusoe Was a Girl (Robinson Crusoe Meye Chilen)

1Tomato comes from the Spanish tomate, which in turn comes from the Nahuatl word tomatl [ˈtomat͡ɬ], meaning “the swelling fruit”. When Aztecs started to cultivate the fruit to be larger, sweeter, and red, they called the new species xitomatl (or jitomates) (pronounced [ʃiːˈtomatɬ]). Page 18

2 Alexander Selkirk (1676 – 13 December 1721) was a Scottish privateer and Royal Navy officer who spent four years and four months as a castaway (1704–1709) after being marooned by his captain on an uninhabited island in the South Pacific Ocean. By the time he was eventually rescued by English privateer Woodes Rogers, in company with Dampier, Selkirk had become adept at hunting and making use of the resources that he found on the island. His story of survival was widely publicized after his return to England, becoming a source of inspiration for writer Daniel Defoe‘s fictional character Robinson Crusoe. Page 19

3 Kublai Khan was the fifth Khagan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire reigning from 1260 to 1294 (although after the division of the empire this was a nominal position). He also founded the Yuan dynasty in China as a conquest dynasty in 1271, and ruled as the first Yuan emperor until his death in 1294. Page 20

4 Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝; pinyin: Sòng cháo; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song. The Song government was the first in world history to issue banknotes or true paper money nationally and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy. Page 22

What is Annotation?

Annotating is any action that deliberately interacts with a text to enhance the reader’s understanding of, recall of, and reaction to the text. Sometimes called “close reading,” annotating usually involves highlighting or underlining key pieces of text and making notes in the margins of the text. This page will introduce you to several effective strategies for annotating a text that will help you get the most out of your reading.

Why Annotate?

By annotating a text, you will ensure that you understand what is happening in a text after you’ve read it. As you annotate, you should note the author’s main points, shifts in the message or perspective of the text, key areas of focus, and your own thoughts as you read. However, annotating isn’t just for people who feel challenged when reading academic texts. Even if you regularly understand and remember what you read, annotating will help you summarize a text, highlight important pieces of information, and ultimately prepare yourself for discussion and writing prompts that your instructor may give you. Annotating means you are doing the hard work while you read, allowing you to reference your previous work and have a clear jumping-off point for future work.